JRPN is a clean-room calculator simulator inspired by the HP-16C. It uses a simulated seven-segment LCD for display, and generally tries to remain faithful to the look-and-feel of a real 16C. I think of the 16C as the "vi" of calculators, but the simulator is a bit like a modern Harley Davidson motorcycle - I rented one once, and they engineer in a certain amount of vibration and engine noise that are totally unnecessary, but that make you feel like you're "taming the iron horse." In a similar way, this simulator includes a slight delay and a bit of a blink on the LCD when you do a calculator operation, and in other ways it attempts to simulate a 1982-vintage calculator.
The calculator has some interesting features:
You can disable the windowing function. If you do, then the digits on the LCD shrink so that they all fit. They get pretty small on a 64 bit binary number! You can disable windowing from settings, or temporarily by pressing clear-prefix in integer mode.
You can copy the contents of the display to the clipboard.
From the menu, you can share the calculator state, either to/from the clipboard, or to an application.
The app can interpret a URL that contains an encoding of the calculator state. This works in the web version, and also on the mobile versions: Both iOS and Android apps register to intercept navigation to the calculator's domain.
If you want calculator programs to run faster, there's a setting for that. But watching the 7-segment flashing "running" message is, to my mind, part of the fun!
Programs and registers are stored in a common 406-nybble storage area, to faithfully reproduce the limitations of the 16C, and the behavior of registers when the word size is changed. See
modelfor some words about that implementation.
The design is a pretty has a pretty strict MVC separation. Notably, the model doesn't have API dependencies on the view or the controller.
The state model of the 16C is pretty complicated -- they really
made the most out of a small package! This complexity is managed
though extensive use of the GoF state pattern, especially in
controller.states. The controller uses the
command pattern to manage the complexity of the operations.
controller.operations for details.
The LCD display is created using some trig. The drawings where I
worked this out are fun -- see
As a general statement, I tried to provide good overviews, and design documentation. I find that this helps me to refine the design and spot problems, but I this case I thought there might be some value in using this project as a sort of design clinic. It's a good size for that: At about 10K LOC it's big enough to have an interesting design, but not so big as to be overwhelming. It ends up using a fair number of OO design idioms, and it's pretty faithful to the standard GoF patterns.
This app pushes the Dart type system a bit -- Dart's (mostly)
sound static typing was a big help in getting the code right,
but it did expose one place where Dart's unsound covariance
rules hurt a bit. See
for more details on that.
- The main controller for the application. The controller receives Operation instances from the view in response to button presses, and manipulates the Model. [...]
- The calculator operations. This is split into its own library so that it's encapsulated from the controller internals. Operations are split into various types, viz: [...]
- The states of the controller, reflecting the input mode of the calculator. There are three main states: Resting (the state it's usually in, waiting for something to do), DigitEntry and ProgramEntry. There are a large number of additional states, such as argument input, or running a program. The full hierarchy looks like this: [...]
- The model for the calculator, centered around Model. It retains the state of the calculator, most of which is saved persistently. It also functions as a helper to the controller, by providing states using the state pattern for calculator modes, like the DisplayMode and the SignMode. The overall structure looks like this: [...]
- The back panel of the calculator.
- Buttons for the keyboard. When pressed, buttons consult the Model to see if a shift key has been pressed, and dispatch an appropriate Operation to the Controller. [...]
- Widget to draw the LCD Display, using a
CustomPainterand direct drawing commands. The main eleven-digit display doesn't use a font; the individual segments are drawn. [...]
- The main screen of the calculator. It uses ScreenPositioner to exactly position widgets, and scale them to the screen size.